发布时间:2015-06-12 来源: terracotta
第一篇:兵马俑,英文Terracotta Army Jump tonavigation, search Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region** China Cultural i, iii, iv, vi 441 Asia-Pacific Inscription history Inscription 1987 (11th Session) * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. ** Region as classified by UNESCO. The Terracotta Army (simplified Chinese兵马俑; traditional Chinese兵馬俑; pinyinbīngmǎ yǒng; literally "soldier and horse funerary statues") is the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. The terracotta figures, dating from 210 BC, were discovered in 1974 by some local farmers near Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China near the Mausouleum of the First Qin Emperor. (Chinese秦始皇 陵; pinyinQín Shǐhuáng Líng). The figures vary in height (183–195 cm - 6 ft–6 ft 5in), according to their role, the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots, horses, officials, acrobats, strongmen, and musicians. Current estimates are that in the three pits containing the Terracotta Army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which are still buried in the pits. Many archeologists believe that there are many pits still waiting to be discovered. Contents [hide] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 Introduction 2 Construction 3 The pits 4 British Museum exhibition 5 In popular culture 6 Gallery 7 Notes 8 Bibliography 9 External links  Introduction View of the largest excavation pit of the Terracotta Army The Terracotta Army was discovered in 1974 in the eastern suburbs of Xi'an, Shaanxi Province by local farmers drilling a water well 1.5 miles east of Lishan (a mountain). This discovery prompted archaeologists to go to Shaanxi Province, China to investigate. The Terracotta Army is a form of funerary art buried with the First Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang, "shi huang" means the first emperor) in 210-209 BC. (He declared himself the first emperor of China in 221 BCE.) Their purpose was to help rule another empire with Shi Huang Di in the afterlife. Consequently, they are also sometimes referred to as "Qin's Armies." The material to make the terracotta warriors originated on Mount Lishan. In addition to the warriors, an entire man-made necropolis for the emperor has been excavated. According to historian Sima Qian (145-90 BC), construction of this mausoleum began in 246 BC and involved 700,000 workers. Qin Shi Huang was 13 when construction began. He specifically stated that no two soldiers were to be made alike, which is most likely why he had construction started at that young age. Sima Qian, in his most famous work, Shiji, completed a century after the mausoleum completion, wrote that the First Emperor was buried with palaces, scenic towers, officials, valuable utensils and "wonderful objects," with 100 rivers fashioned in mercury and above this heavenly bodies below which he wrote were "the features of the earth." Some translations of this passage refer to "models" or "imitations," but he does not use those words. Recent scientific work at the site has shown high levels of mercury in the soil on and around Mount Lishan, appearing to add credence to Sima Qian's writings. The tomb of Shi Huang Di is under an earthen pyramid 76 meters tall and nearly 350 square meters. The tomb remains unopened, in the hope that it will remain intact. Archeologists are afraid that if they do excavate the tomb, they might damage some of the valuables buried with emperor Qin Shi Huang. Only a portion of the site is presently excavated, and photos and video recordings are prohibited in some areas of the viewing. Only few foreigners such as Queen Elizabeth II have walked through the pits, side by side to the army.  Qin Shi Huang’s necropolis complex was constructed to serve as an imperial compound or palace. It comprises several offices, halls and other structures and is surrounded by a wall with gateway entrances. It was also said as a legend that the terracotta warriors were real soldiers, buried with Emperor Qin so that they could defend him from any dangers in the next life.  Construction The terracotta figures were manufactured both in workshops by government laborers and also by local craftsmen. The head, arms, legs and torsos were created separately and then assembled. Studies show that eight face moulds were most likely used, and then clay was added to provide individual facial features. Once assembled, intricate features such as facial expressions were added. It is believed that their legs were made in much the same way that terracotta drainage pipes were manufactured at the time. This would make it an assembly line production, with specific parts manufactured and assembled after being fired, as opposed to crafting one solid piece of terracotta and subsequently firing it. In those days, each workshop was required to inscribe its name on items produced to ensure quality control. This has aided modern historians in verifying that workshops that once made tiles and other mundane items were commandeered to work on the terracotta army. Upon completion, the terracotta figures were placed in the pits in precise military formation according to rank and duty. The terracotta figures are life-like and life-sized. They vary in height, uniform and hairstyle in accordance with rank. The colored lacquer finish, individual facial features, and actual weapons and armor from battle used in manufacturing these figures created a realistic appearance. The original weapons were stolen by robbers shortly after the creation of the army and the coloring has faded greatly. However, their existence serves as a testament to the amount of labor and skill involved in their construction. It also reveals the power the First Emperor possessed, enabling him to command such a monumental undertaking.  The pits The four pits associated with the dig are about 1.5 km east of the burial ground and are about 7 meters deep. The outside walls of the tomb complex are as if placed there to protect the tomb from the east, where all the conquered states lay. They are solidly built with rammed earth walls and ground layers as hard as concrete. Pit one, 230 meters long, contains the main army, estimated at 8,000 figures. Pit One has 11 corridors, most of which are over 3 meters wide, and paved with small bricks with a wooden ceiling supported by large beams and posts. This design was also used for the tombs of noblemen and would have resembled palace hallways. The wooden ceilings were covered with reed mats and layers of clay for waterproofing, and then mounded with more soil making them, when built, about 2 to 3 meters higher than ground level. Pit two has cavalry and infantry units as well as war chariots, and is thought to represent a military guard. Pit three is the command post, with high ranking officers and a war chariot. Pit four is empty, seemingly left unfinished by its builders.  British Museum exhibition A set piece of 120 objects from the mausoleum and 20 terracotta warriors were displayed at the British Museum in London as its special exhibition "The First EmperorChina's Terracotta Army" from September 13, 2007 to April 2008. This Terracotta Army exhibition made 2008 the British Museum's most successful year ever, and made the British Museum the United Kingdom's top cultural attraction between 2007-08. The exhibition also brought in the most visitors to the British Museum since the King Tutankhamun exhibition in 1972. It was reported that the initial batch of pre-bookable tickets to the Terracotta Army exhibition sold out so fast that the museum extended the exhibition until midnight on Thursdays to Sundays. According to The Times, many people had to be turned away from the exhibition, despite viewings until midnight, and during the day of events to mark the Chinese new year, the crush was so intense that the gates to the museum had to be shut. The Terracotta Army has been described as the only other set of historic artifacts (along with the remnants of ruins of the Titanic) which can draw a crowd simply on the back of the name alone.  In popular culture ? ? ? ? ? ? The Terracotta Army was featured in a 1992 episode of Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego? In 2004 the Terracotta Army was visited by the contestants competing on Season 6 of The Amazing Race. In 2005 film The Myth, the mausoleum was raided and revealed to be a huge antigravity field complete with floating armies and mock palace. The Terracotta Army was replicated in the 2008 movie The MummyTomb of the Dragon Emperor. In Lionhead Studio's Fable II, Terry Cotter's Army, a spoof of the Terracotta Army, can be found behind a "Demon Door." The game The Sims 3 has an expansion pack The Sims 3World Adventures that has soldiers, horses and chariots from the Terracotta Army in the China vacation destination.  Gallery A rank of soldiers. One of the soldiers on the left is missing his head, a result of the fact that the statues were made in pieces and then assembled. Note how the faces of these two soldiers differ from each other. Each Ranks of terracotta statue was constructed An officer statue infantrymen to be unique. The Terracotta Warriors were once painted. Today only a handful ofA cavalryman and The warriors were statues contain small his mount once highly coloured amounts of paint. Also notice the detail put into the soles of the warrior's shoes. The statues include many of the different military units in the Emperor's army at the time. Here we see a four horse war chariot with mounts.  Notes 1. ^ Jane Portal and Qingbo Duan, The First EmperorChina's Terra Cotta Army, British Museum Press, 2007, p. 167 2. ^ The precise coordinates are 34°23′5.71″N 109°16′23.19″E34.3849194°N 109.2731083°ECoordinates34°23′5.71″N 109°16′23.19″E34.3849194°N 109.2731083°E) 3. ^ Jane Portal and Qingbo Duan, The First EmperorChina's Terracotta Army, British Museum Press, 2007, p. 17 4. ^ The Mausoleum of the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty and Terracotta Warriors and Horses 5. ^ Jane Portal and Qingdao Dan, The First EmperorChina's Terracotta Arm, British Museum Press, 2007, p. 170 6. ^ Jane Portal and Qingbo Duan, The First EmperorChina's Terracotta Arm, British Museum Press, 2007, pp260-167 7. ^ The First EmperorChina's Terracotta Army. The British Museum 8. ^ a b "Terracotta army makes British Museum favorite attraction". The Guardian. 2008-07-02. http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2008/jul/02/design.heritage. 9. ^ "British Museum sees its most successful year ever". Best Western. 2008-07-03. http://www.bestwestern.co.uk/Editorial-News/Article/British-Museum-sees-itsmost-successful-year-ever-401.aspx. 10. ^ a b "The First EmperorChina’s Terracotta Army (British Museum)". Great Exhibitions. 2008-02-09. http://www.greatexhibitions.co.uk/blog/the-firstemperor-chinas-terracotta-army-british-museum/. 11. ^ a b "Is the British Museum the greatest museum on earth?". The Times. 2008-0709. http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/visual_arts/artic le4296037.ece.  Bibliography ? ? ? ? ? Debainne-Francfort, Corrine (1999). The Search for Ancient China. Discoveries. New YorkHarry N. Abrams. ISBN 9780810928503. Dillon, Michael (1998). ChinaA Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Durham East Asia series. Richmond, SurreyCurzon. ISBN 9780700704392. Kinoshita, Hiromi (2007). Jane Portal. ed. The First EmperorChina's Terracotta Army. LondonBritish Museum. ISBN 9780714124476. Ledderose, Lothar (2000). "A Magic Army for the Emperor". Ten Thousand ThingsModule and Mass Production in Chinese Art. The A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts. Princeton, NJPrinceton University Press. ISBN 9780691009575. Perkins, Dorothy (1999). Encyclopedia of ChinaThe Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. New YorkFacts on File. ISBN 9780816043743.
第一篇:兵马俑,英文兵马俑英文 Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum and the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses Museum Emperor Qin Shihuang (259-210B.C.) had Ying as his surname and Zheng as his given name. He name to the throne of the Qin at age 13, and took the helm of the state at age of 22. By 221 B.C., he had annexed the six rival principalities of Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao and Wei, and established the first feudal empire in China’s history. In the year 221 B.C., when he unified the whole country, Ying Zheng styled himself emperor. He named himself Shihuang Di, the first emperor in the hope that his later generations be the second, the third even the one hundredth and thousandth emperors in proper order to carry on the hereditary system. Since then, the supreme feudal rulers of China’s dynasties had continued to call themselves Huang Di, the emperor. After he had annexed the other six states, Emperor Qin Shihuang abolished the enfeoffment system and adopted the prefecture and county system. He standardized legal codes, written language, track, currencies, weights and measures. To protect against harassment by the Hun aristocrats. Emperor Qin Shihuang ordered the Great Wall be built. All these measures played an active role in eliminating the cause of the state of separation and division and strengthening the unification of the whole country as well as promotion the development of economy and culture. 1 They had a great and deep influence upon China’s 2,000 year old feudal society. Emperor Qin Shihuang ordered the books of various schools burned except those of the Qin dynasty’s history and culture, divination and medicines in an attempt to push his feudal autocracy in the ideological field. As a result, China’s ancient classics had been devastated and destroy. Moreover, he once ordered 460 scholars be buried alive. Those events were later called in history“the burning of books and the burying of Confucian scholars.” Emperor Qin Shihuang，for his own pleasure, conscribed several hundred thousand convicts and went in for large-scale construction and had over seven hundred palaces built in the Guanzhong Plain. These palaces stretched several hundred li and he sought pleasure from one palace to the other. Often nobody knew where he ranging treasures inside the tomb, were enclosed alive. Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum has not yet been excavated. What looks like inside could noly be known when it is opened. However, the three pits of the terra-cotta warriot excavated outside the east gate of the outer enclosure of the necropolis can make one imagine how magnificent and luxurious the structure of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum was. No.1 Pit was stumbled upon in March 1974 when villagers of Xiyang 2 Village of Yanzhai township, Lintong County, sank a well 1.5km east of the mausoleum. In 1976, No.2 and 3 Pits were found 20m north of No.1 Pit respectively after the drilling survey. The terra-cotta warriors and horses are arrayed according to the Qin dynasty battle formation, symbolizing the troops keeping vigil beside the mausoleum. This discovery aroused much interest both at home and abroad. In 1975, a museum, housing the site of No.1 and covering an area of 16,300 square meters was built with the permission of the State Council. The museum was formally opened to public on Oct.1, the National Day, 1979. No.1 Pit is 230 meters long from east to west, 62m wide from north to south and 5m deep , covering a total area of 14,260 square meters. It is an earth-and-wood structure in the shape of a tunnel. There are five sloping entrances on the eastern and western sides of the pit respectively. The pit is divided into eleven corridors by ten earthen partition walls, and the floors are paved with bricks. 3
第一篇:兵马俑,英文Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Current estimates are that in the three pits containing the Terracotta Army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which are still buried in the pits near by Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were also found in other pits and they include officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians. Terra Cotta Warriors is divided into 11 kinds：the general warriors, car warriors and driver, shoot warriors(standing), shoot warriors(kneeling),warrior figure, cavalry warriors, the horse warriors, weapon warriors. Recently an interesting phenomenon has been discoveredthe looks of terracotta warriors unearthed from the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang closely resemble those of modern Chinese people. Examined closely, almost every facial variation of modern Chinese man can be found amongst the warrior figures. Out of great astonishment, some people may guess the artisans practiced divination, by which they could predict the appearance of Chinese people living over 2,000 years later. Experts don't agree by holding that the accidental discovery contains inevitability. The plastic art of terracotta warrior basically covers all Chinese people's facial shapes, which can be classified into eight types similar to the strokes of certain Chinese characters. Observe carefully, and you will find the face shapes of terracotta warriors are no more than these eight types. '国' shape-facecharacterized by rectangle face, high cheekbone, wide forehead and cheek. '用' shape-facemarked by oblong face and flat cheek and chin. '目 ' shape-facenarrow and long face with small features. '田' shape-facenear square shape. '甲' shape-facewide top and narrow bottom, like the shape of a melon seed. '由' shape-facelong face with narrow forehead and wide chin. '申 ' shape-facewide cheekbone and narrow ends of the face, and oval face. Besides grasping the characteristics of these eight face shapes, the Qin's artisans also learned that different face shapes should match with unlike facial features. For example, the plump '由' shape-face matches with small eyes, nose and mouth. Qin artisans were skilled at using tiny details to express different characters and mental states. A person's temperament is often seen in his eyes, which is no exception to the Qin Terracotta Warriors. A canny warrior is recognized by his graceful eyebrow and eyes, a brave soldier's eyes are wide and staring, while a simple and honest soldier often has big head, wide face, bushy eyebrows and big eyes. All the eyeballs of the Qin Terracotta Warriors are simple a convex shapes. Eyes are regarded as the window to a man's heart so the artisans carved different eyes to represent the "inner world" of the different soldiers. Some soldiers have squinty eyes and a tender smile to show their confidence to win the war; some soldiers have eyes wide open in a fury, filled with hate toward their enemies; and some soldiers are looking down, shy and quiet. The soldiers looking forward have their eyeballs in the center of the eyelids, and those who looking up have the eyeballs titled up slightly. Also, the eyes of the Qin Terracotta Warriors depict a single eye-lid, which accurately represents the features of the eyes of the Qin people. On seeing the terracotta warrior figures, we could not help praising their lifelike appearance, reflecting the deep and thorough observation on life of the artisans living in the Qin Dynasty. The wisdom of the ancient Chinese people is embodied in this magnificent group of terracotta warriors. Among the 1,500 terracotta warrior figures of the Terracotta Army, stands a unique green-faced soldier. Discovered in Pit No.2 in 1999, this unusual figure greatly aroused the curiosity and interest of archaeologists everywhere. The whole body of this figure was painted in color and the paint on the face still remains. The white part of the eye ball and black pupil are still very clearly visible. The figure's face, neck and ears were painted light green, which marks him out as very different to the other pink faced terracotta warriors. The eyebrows and beard are black, the hair band is scarlet, and the hair bun and the hair are painted ochre. This difference led to a heated debate among archaeologists as to the reason why he was painted in this way. Some experts believe that it was done completely by mistake, guessing the figure's creator must have been color blind. Others refute this by pointing out that the strict management rules of the Qin Dynasty would not allow a product which did not conform to the specification to be buried in the mausoleum. Some experts believe that the warrior's green face was intended to frighten enemies, however all of these statements are lacking in scientific evidence. It is interesting to note that the ancient Chinese viewed the color green as symbolic of youthfulness and vibrancy. Based on this knowledge, some experts assert that the green-faced terracotta warrior could have been placed there to demonstrate the braveness of all the soldiers and the power of the army in battle. Qin Officer's Dressing In the Qin Dynasty, the ranks of officers can be recognized by their dressings. The terracotta general wears a dual long jacket, a dark purple crest hat, a long pant, a thigh protector, a pair of boots with square opening tipping and uniform head, and covered with a colorful armor, looking grand and awe-inspiring. The middle-level officer has two kinds of dressing. The first kind includes a long jacket, a thigh protector, a boots with square opening tipping head, chest plate trimmed with colorful lace and a double long hat. The second kind includes a high collar gown clasped on the right side, a thigh protector, a boots with square opening tipping head and covered a piece of armor with smooth edge and colorful lace. The junior officer wears a long jacket, a piece of armor, a long hat, a pair of shallow shoes and a thigh protector. Also there are a few junior officers do not wear armors. They fight in light equipment. Qin Soldier's Dressing The heavy infantries of the Qin terracotta warriors have three kinds of dressing. The first kind includes a long jacket, a pair of shorts, and a pair of shallow shoes, and combed a tight roll of hair at the right side of the head, assembled with leggings and has armor on the back. The second kind is similar to the first one except the soldiers have a red handkerchief on the head. The third kind of soldier's dressing is same to the second one, but the soldiers belong to this group combs flat bobs on the back of the heads instead of wearing handkerchiefs. The cavalries wear Hu dress ("Hu" refers to the northern minorities living in the northwestern part of ancient China, unlike the loose clothes wore by the people living in the central China, Hu dress is tight which is easy for horse racing and archery), waist-length armors and round small hats. They hold the bow and arrow in one hand, with the reins in the other hand. The drivers of chariots dress in two ways. Some wear long jackets, armors, long hats, shallow shoes and armed with leggings. The other kind of dressing provides strict protection to the body which is reflected in the square plates protecting the neck, and the plates cover the two arms to connect with hand guards. Acrobatics Figures (Baixi Yong) In the spring in 1999, the archaeologists at the Mausoleum of the Emperor Qin Shihuang discovered an accessory pit between the inner and outer city of the mausoleum. In the nine newly excavated pits, they found eleven color-painted acrobatics figures and the utensils they used for performance such as Ding (tripod), spears and pottery basins. These acrobatics figures, though being crushed into pieces, are recognizable on the whole. At present, three pieces have been repaired and marked No.1, No.3 and No.5. They are naked from the waist up and wear thick short skirts. Their faces were painted light pink. It is believed that they are probably the acrobats who played wrestling, weight lifting, dancing and other performances. The No.1 acrobatics figure stands at attention, measuring 5.7 feet tall. Its l作文eft hand holds the right wrist and the arms crossed before the belly. The No.3 acrobat is tough and brave. Measuring 6.2 feet tall, it has strong muscles on the chest and arms, the belly slightly bulged, the right arm lifts uplifted, the left thumb put into the waist belt, the left leg bent forward and the right foot steps on the floor heavily. The No.5 acrobat is the strongest and tallest one. It is about 6.6 feet tall. The two hands put across the belly. There is a trail of a cylindrical thing between the left arm and left ribs. It is supposed to be a long wooden column, but was decayed through years. These acrobatics figures are different from those severe-looking terracotta warriors in gestures, dressings and expressions. The discovery of these figures adds a new group to the Qin terracotta warriors; shows us the colorful acrobatical art and the entertainment culture in the Qin royal court. Arose from the primitive society, Baixi was prospered in the Qin and Han dynasties. It refers to the theatricals and variety shows including pole climbing, wrestling dance, sword-swallowing and tripod lifting, among which the tripod lifting is the most welcomed one. The men of giant strength competed in lifting up the heaviest tripod. During this excavation work, a copper tripod was also unearthed. It weights about 467 pounds, which is the heaviest copper tripod discovered in the Qin Mausoleum by far. What's more, on the side palace of the Emperor Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, experts discovered a stone dice called Shiboqiong similar to today's dice but with 14 sides. Each side was carved with one character or a number. It is believed that the dice was a play thing of the Emperor Qin Shihuang. But how to play it and how the 14 sides developed into today's six sides, remains unknown The Terra Cotta Warriors Pits have unearthed large amounts of bronze weapons which include swords, spears, scimitars, billhooks, halberds, arrowheads and crossbows. Despite being buried for over two thousand years, these military weapons still glitter and their edges are as sharp as of old. This miracle reflects the high level of metallurgical technology of the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC). Experts have found many reasons to explain the Qin Army's formidable might, including strict military systems, a well-disciplined army and wise tactics in fighting. But one important factor that should not be ignored is their highly advanced military equipment including the followingSwordJian in Chinese. The sword is the king of short weapons. In fighting, the sword is used to stab the enemy. The over 20 pieces of bronze swords unearthed in Pit 1 and Pit 2 are smooth and sharp in the color of yellow gray. The body parts were finely filed and polished, making the swords as bright as new. Comparatively, Qin swords were molded longer than the ones in other states. It is because the longer the sword is, the easier it is to stab the enemy. But the bronze swords unearthed in the Qin terracotta warriors pit were not the best precious swords in the Qin Dynasty. The bronze sword hung on the officer warrior in the bronze chariot measures 60 cm, but if enlarged to the actual size, it measures as long as 120 cm, not to mention the length of the precious sword wore by the Emperor Qin Shi Huang. SpearMao in Chinese. The bronze spears unearthed in the Terra Cotta Pits are sharp and exquisite. Unlike the bronze Bronze Halberd spears of the Wu and Yue States which have gorgeous decoration, Qin spears focus on actual combat performance, which reflect on the spears' simple and fluent lines, strong body, wide and flat shape as well as on its sharp blade. CrossbowNu in Chinese. Compared to the bow, the crossbow takes more tension and has a long effective range. It was used to shoot at long-range targets. Qin Crossbows had a standard shape and structure. The bow back, bow belly, upper and lower bow-limb of different crossbows were created to the same standard. The Qin bronze mechanical devices on the bows were so standardized that even the small components were interchangeable. ArrowheadJiancu in Chinese. It is used with the crossbow. There were 40,000 arrowheads unearthed in the terra cotta pits, including two iron arrowheads. The bronze heads are prismatic and made up of head, shaft and vane. Dagger-AxeKnown as Ge in Chinese, the dagger-axe is a pointed weapon commonly used in combat during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. It has long styles and short styles which are divided by the length of the handle. There was only one dagger-axe unearthed in Pit 1, which means that the importance of Ge was not as significant during the Qin Dynasty as in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties.