英国伦敦塔桥

发布时间:2015-05-26 来源: 塔桥的设计师是谁

第一篇:英国伦敦塔桥

英国伦敦塔桥(附图) TOWER BRIDGE LONDON Originally, London Bridge was the only crossing over the Thames. As London grew, so more bridges were added, but these were all to the west of London Bridge, since the area east of London Bridge had become a busy port. In the 19th century, the east end of London became so densely populated that public pressure mounted for a bridge to the east of London Bridge, as journeys for pedestrians and vehicles were being delayed literally by hours. Finally in 1876, the Corporation of London, who were responsible for that part of the Thames, decided that the problem could be put off no longer. Tower Bridge was completed in 1894, after 8 years of construction. However, many people don't realise why it is so different from London's other bridges. How a Design was Chosen The big problem for the Corporation of London was how to build a bridge downstream from London Bridge without disrupting river traffic activities. To get as many ideas as possible, the "Special Bridge or Subway Committee" was formed in 1876, and opened the design of the new crossing to public competition. Over 50 designs were put forward for consideration, some of which you can see if you visit The Tower Bridge Exhibition. However, it wasn't until October 1884 that Horace Jones, the City Architect, in collaboration with John Wolfe Barry, offered the chosen design for Tower Bridge as a solution. The Building of the Bridge It took 8 years, 5 major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers to build Tower Bridge. Two massive piers had to be sunk into the river bed to support the construction, over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways. This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the bridge a more pleasing appearance. How it Works - Then Now When it was built, Tower Bridge was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge ever built ("bascule" comes from the French for "see-saw"). It was a hydraulically operated bridge, using steam to power the enormous pumping engines. The energy created was then stored in six massive accumulators so that, as soon as power was required to lift the bridge, it was readily available. The accumulators fed the driving engines, which drove the bascules up and down. Despite the complexity of the system, the bascules only took about a minute to raise to their maximum 86 degrees. Nowadays, the bascules are still operated by hydraulic power, but since 1976 they have been driven by oil and electricity rather than steam. The original pumping engines, accumulators and boilers are on show as part of The Tower Bridge Exhibition, and you can also see the current machinery and control cabins when you come on a "Behind The Scenes Tour". (Behind The Scenes Tours must be pre-booked) Interesting Facts Tower Bridge has a fascinating history, which is explored in detail for visitors at The Tower Bridge Exhibition. Here are a few interesting facts you may not have known

1910 The high-level walkways, which were designed so that the public could still cross the bridge when it was raised, were closed down due to lack of use. Most people preferred to wait at the bottom and watch the bascules rise up! 1912 During an emergency, Frank McClean had to fly between the bascules and the high-level walkways in his Short biplane, to avoid an accident. 1952 A London bus had to leap from one bascule to the other when the bridge began to rise with the bus still on it. 1977 Tower Bridge was painted red, white and blue to celebrate the Queen's Silver Jubilee. (Before that, it was painted a chocolate brown colour). 1982 Tower Bridge opened to the public for the first time since 1910, with a permanent exhibition inside called the Tower Bridge Exhibition. The Walkways were glazed for the first time to house the new Exhibition. 1993 The centenary exhibition - The Tower Bridge Experience opened, featuring animatronic models telling the story of Tower Bridge. 1994 Tower Bridge became available to hire for parties and receptions. 2002 The current Tower Bridge Exhibition opened, refocusing on the magnificent views from the Walkways and the history of the Bridge. 2003 Tower Bridge Exhibition came of age celebrating its 21st Birthday!

第一篇:英国伦敦塔桥

基本信息】 【 基本信息 】 建筑名称

伦敦塔桥(Tower Bridge,London) 地理坐标

51°30'18''N ,0°04'32''W 主要数据

主要数据 :塔桥两端由 4 座石塔连接, 两座主塔高 35 米。河中的两座桥基高 7. 6 米,相距 76 米。

修建时间

1886 年。1894 年建成通车。

【概况简介】 伦敦塔桥是从英国伦敦泰晤士河口算起 伦敦塔桥外部 的第一座桥(泰晤士河上共建桥 15 座),也是伦敦的象征,有“伦敦正门”之称。该桥始 建于 1886 年,1894 年 6 月 30 日对公众开放,将伦敦南北区连接成整体。

伦敦塔桥是一座吊桥,最初为一木桥,后改为石桥,现在是座拥有 6 条车道的水 泥结构桥。河中的两座桥基高 7.6 米,相距 76 米,桥基上建有两座高耸的方形主塔, 为花岗岩和钢铁结构的方形五层塔,高 40 多米,两座主塔上建有白色大理石屋顶和 五个小尖塔,远看仿佛两顶王冠。两塔之间的跨度为 60 多米,塔基和两岸用钢缆吊 桥相连。桥身分为上、下两层,上层(桥面高于高潮水位约 42 米)为宽阔的悬空人行 道,两侧装有玻璃窗,行人从桥上通过,可以饱览泰晤士河两岸的美丽风光;下层可 供车辆通行。当泰晤士河上有万吨船只通过时,主塔内机器启动,桥身慢慢分开,向 上折起,船只过后,桥身慢慢落下,恢复车辆通行。两块活动桥面,各自重达 1000 吨。从远处观望塔桥,双塔高耸,极为壮丽。桥塔内设楼梯上下,内设博物馆、展览 厅、商店、酒吧等。登塔远眺,可尽情欣赏泰晤士河上下游十里风光。假若遇上薄雾 锁桥,景观更为一绝,雾锁塔桥是伦敦胜景之一。

复活节是纪念耶稣复活,在每年春分月圆之后第一个星期日。也是基督教最重要的 一个节日。这段时期上市的彩蛋有两种。人们按照传统习俗把鸡蛋煮熟后涂上红色。

复活节的另一象征是小兔子,原因是它具有极强的繁殖能力,

第一篇:英国伦敦塔桥

伦敦塔桥 姓名:贾坤 班级:2010070301 学号

105070340050 指导教师:丁甜甜 ? London Bridge is falling down, 伦敦桥就到倒塌了, falling down, falling down. 就要倒塌了,倒塌了。

London Bridge is falling down, 伦敦桥就要倒塌了, My fair lady! 我美丽的小姐! Build it up with iron bars, 用铁栏杆建起来, iron bars, iron bars. 铁栏杆,铁栏杆。

Build it up with iron bars, 用铁栏杆建起来, My fair lady! 我美丽的小姐! Iron bars will bend and break, 铁栏杆会变弯会破碎, Bend and break, bend and break. 会变弯,会破碎。

Iron bars will bend and break, 铁栏杆会变弯会破碎, My fair lady! 我美丽的小姐! 这是一首关于伦敦塔桥的儿歌 ? 伦敦塔桥的历史 ? 伦敦泰唔士河上的首座桥建于公元43年,那是一座浮桥, 不久就被第一座称之为伦敦桥的桥代替。公元984年这座 桥又被新伦敦桥所代替。它的寿命又不太长,1074年又被 毁掉。之后,1176年第一座石头伦敦桥才建立,费时33 年,可它被使用了600年,直到1824年,又一座伦敦桥代 替了它。这座桥由约翰· 兰尼父子两代完成,由父亲设计 儿子建造。父亲是司格特人,毕业于爱丁堡大学。从1791 年起,他就是那个时代最伟大的土木工程师之一。他建造 了许多运河、港口和桥梁,最著名的就是1817年建造的滑 铁卢大桥。

? 建造这座新伦敦桥,动用800名民工,耗时7年。它是那时 期一个最主要的建筑,也反映了那个时代英国最高造桥技 术。新的大桥保持了原来桥的两点:一是材料仍采用石头, 二是桥名仍称为伦敦桥,因为它已延续了750年。 ? 伦敦桥是泰晤士河上资格最老的 桥,公元965年建成。它原是一座 木桥,两个世纪后改为石桥,是 当年沟通泰晤士河南北两岸的唯 一通道。岁月沧桑,伦敦桥难逃 苍老的命运,逐渐显露了颓败的 迹象,对日益繁重的交通,已不 胜重荷,于是,便流传了这样一 首充满悲剧色彩的民谣。但老谋 深算的英国人,并没有眼睁睁地 看着伦敦桥倒塌,而是把它变为 无价宝。他们大力宣传伦敦桥的 历史华彩,把废桥作为古董,卖 给了美国亚利桑那州的哈瓦苏湖 城地产商。商人把古桥的构件逐 一编号拆卸,用巨轮运至美国, 再按原样在哈瓦苏湖上把它重新 砌筑起来,周围点缀以英式房舍, 成为一个别开生面的旅游点—— “小伦敦”。美国地产商让英国人 赚了钱,自己也并不吃亏,由于 “古董桥”的吸引,游客不绝, 该城的地产随之而大大升值,全 城百姓都在不同程度上受惠于 “古董桥”而富裕起来。 晨光中的伦敦塔桥 1988作文年被列入世界文化遗产遗产名录 的伦敦塔桥(Tower Bridge of London)是从英国伦敦泰晤士河口算 起的第一座桥。由原先的木桥,到后 来的石桥,再到现在全长270米,桥 面宽100米的钢铁大桥,伦敦塔桥前 世今生走过了八九百年的时光。

今天,高高耸立在泰晤士河上的伦敦 塔桥将伦敦南北两区连接成了整体。

远远望去,双塔高耸,仿佛两顶皇冠, 桥头堡极为繁琐的雕饰则代表了17世 纪兴起的奢靡浮华的巴洛克风格。当 泰晤士河上有万吨级船舶通过时,桥 塔的主塔内机器启动,桥身慢慢分开, 两块各自重达1000吨的桥面向上呈八 字折起,轰轰隆隆,这庞大的建筑似 乎突然间被注入了生命。于是一下子 被眼前的状景震到,仿佛进入了哈利 波特的魔幻世界,一个动作便点活了 庞然大物。 ? 毗邻塔桥的伦敦塔(Tower of London)则是英国历史上许多重要事件的发生地,也是英国的 另一世界文化遗产。这是一扇通往可怕而又令人沉醉的历史的窗户,1078年征服者威廉为白 塔铺下了第一块石头,此后的近千年岁月中,从控制全城的城堡、到王室的住所、到珍藏王室 饰品和珠宝的宝库、到当时全英国惟一的造币场所造币厂,再到关押最危险的敌人的国家监狱, 伦敦塔上已经刻满了太多充满血腥的历史遗痕。伦敦塔里最古老的白塔动工后不久,就有一部 分犯人被囚禁在白塔的地下室,最多时伦敦塔竟关押了 1700名犯人。从那以后,就常有犯人 被押解、拷问、行刑于此,伦敦塔也就逐渐成为国家监狱。然而,今天的伦敦塔已经成为了英 国的一大旅游景点,一切悲哀的历史已被时间的轮轴压过、淡去,留下的只有笔尖几段传奇。 ? 在白塔前的绿草地上有许多黑色的乌鸦,他们有专门的护 卫饲养,受到非常细心的照料和关注,仿佛它们才是这伦 敦塔的真正主人。因为一直以来,关于这些乌鸦都有这样 一个传说:“如果乌鸦飞走了,伦敦塔将倒地,大不列颠 帝国也将崩溃。”传说,至少有6只乌鸦在伦敦塔内栖息 了数个世纪,直到二战期间多数乌鸦在炸弹袭击中惊吓而 死,惟一幸存的一只乌鸦叫“格里普”。也许正是它的存 在,那致命的传说才得以守住。在伦敦塔1946年1月1日 重新对公众开放之前,执着的英国人还特意找来了一批新 的乌鸦进驻伦敦塔。据说,在伦敦塔“服过役”的最老一 只乌鸦叫吉姆· 克劳,一直活了44岁。 ? 说到倒塌,无意间想起了一首伦敦的民谣,“London bridge is falling down”,唱得恰是伦敦塔桥的前世沧桑。

瞥眼见白塔坪前依旧有乌鸦徘徊,原来,倒的是前世,不 倒的是今生。 ? ? 如今横跨在泰晤士河上 的伦敦桥建于1967年至 1972年之间,其部分费 用来自出售给雷尼父子 的伦敦桥的所得。新桥 是座相当乏味的水泥桥, 有三个跨度。它也许更 结实,更实用,除此之 外,和旧伦敦桥无法相 比。

2000年来,伦敦桥 不仅见证了人类的历史, 其本身的历史就是人类 文明的发展史。从木桥 到石桥再到水泥桥,伦 敦桥屡兴屡衰,不变的 唯有桥下的泰晤士河水 以及其自身的名字。 谢谢欣赏

英国伦敦塔桥》出自:安格美文网
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英国伦敦塔桥